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@PhDThesis{Azevedo:2013:DeSiCo,
               author = "Azevedo, Claudia Gon{\c{c}}alves de",
                title = "Desenvolvimento de um sistema compacto de combust{\~a}o sem chama 
                         vis{\'{\i}}vel utilizando um injetor blurry para queima de 
                         biocombust{\'{\i}}veis",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2013",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2013-10-14",
             keywords = "combust{\~a}o sem chama vis{\'{\i}}vel, injetor blurry, 
                         biocombust{\'{\i}}veis, flameless combustion, blurry injector, 
                         biofuels.",
             abstract = "As incertezas no fornecimento do petr{\'o}leo e as 
                         preocupa{\c{c}}{\~o}es ambientais motivam o desenvolvimento de 
                         novas tecnologias de combust{\~a}o empregando 
                         biocombust{\'{\i}}veis, capazes de operar com elevada 
                         efici{\^e}ncia t{\'e}rmica, baixo custo operacional e com 
                         reduzido impacto ambiental. A combust{\~a}o sem chama 
                         vis{\'{\i}}vel {\'e} uma tecnologia bastante promissora que 
                         possibilita a redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o das emiss{\~o}es de poluentes 
                         com uma alta efici{\^e}ncia de combust{\~a}o. O presente 
                         trabalho tem como objetivo desenvolver um sistema compacto de 
                         combust{\~a}o sem chama vis{\'{\i}}vel para a queima de 
                         biocombust{\'{\i}}veis l{\'{\i}}quidos, utilizando-se um 
                         injetor do tipo blurry. Esse tipo de injetor permite obter um 
                         spray relativamente uniforme de gotas de tamanho reduzido, e forma 
                         um {\^a}ngulo de cone estreito, favorecendo a 
                         opera{\c{c}}{\~a}o do combustor sem chama vis{\'{\i}}vel. 
                         Inicialmente, foram caracterizados injetores blurry com diferentes 
                         geometrias de bocal usando-se {\'a}gua destilada, etanol 
                         hidratado e biodiesel de soja B100. Foram determinados diversos 
                         par{\^a}metros dos injetores, incluindo coeficientes de descarga, 
                         di{\^a}metros representativos das gotas, 
                         distribui{\c{c}}{\~o}es de di{\^a}metros de gotas e 
                         {\^a}ngulos de cone do spray. Foram obtidas tamb{\'e}m 
                         express{\~o}es para a predi{\c{c}}{\~a}o do tamanho m{\'e}dio 
                         das gotas com os diferentes injetores testados. Em seguida foi 
                         projetado, constru{\'{\i}}do e caracterizado um sistema compacto 
                         de combust{\~a}o sem chama vis{\'{\i}}vel para a queima de 
                         etanol hidratado, 96\% em volume. A caracteriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         experimental do combustor foi realizada atrav{\'e}s da 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos perfis de temperatura na c{\^a}mara 
                         de combust{\~a}o, por meio de termopares e c{\^a}mera 
                         termogr{\'a}fica, e da an{\'a}lise da composi{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos 
                         gases de combust{\~a}o (UHC, \$CO_{2}\$, \$O_{2}\$, 
                         \$NO_{x}\$ e CO), para diversos coeficientes de excesso de ar. 
                         Verificou-se que o sistema de combust{\~a}o foi capaz de operar 
                         no regime de combust{\~a}o sem chama vis{\'{\i}}vel para 
                         coeficientes de ar entre 1,65 e 2,45, a uma pot{\^e}ncia 
                         t{\'e}rmica de 2 kW, e para coeficientes de excesso de ar de 1,21 
                         a 1,80, a uma pot{\^e}ncia t{\'e}rmica de 4 kW. A temperatura de 
                         entrada do ar de combust{\~a}o ficou em torno de \$412^{}\$C 
                         para a pot{\^e}ncia de 2 kW e \$530^{}\$C para a pot{\^e}ncia 
                         de 4 kW. Os perfis de temperatura obtidos foram relativamente 
                         homog{\^e}neos no interior da c{\^a}mara e as emiss{\~o}es 
                         produzidas foram extremamente baixas para todas as 
                         condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es de opera{\c{c}}{\~a}o estudadas. Para a 
                         pot{\^e}ncia de 2 kW, foram obtidas temperaturas m{\'e}dias da 
                         ordem de \$835^{}\$C, com emiss{\~o}es de \$NO_{x}\$ entre 
                         2,5 e 3 ppm e emiss{\~o}es de UHC entre 0,78 e 0,91 ppm. Para a 
                         pot{\^e}ncia de 4 kW, foram obtidas temperaturas m{\'e}dias da 
                         ordem de \$920^{}\$C, com emiss{\~o}es de \$NO_{x}\$ entre 
                         1,98 e 2,16 ppm e emiss{\~o}es de UHC entre 1,53 e 2,25 ppm. 
                         ABSTRACT: The uncertainties in oil supply and environmental 
                         concerns motivate the development of new combustion technologies 
                         using biofuels, capable of operating with high thermal efficiency, 
                         low operational cost and reduced environmental impact. Flameless 
                         combustion is a promising technology that allows the reduction of 
                         pollutant emissions with high combustion efficiency. The present 
                         work aims to develop a compact system of flameless combustion for 
                         burning liquid biofuel, using a blurry injector. The blurry 
                         injector can generate a relatively uniform spray with small 
                         droplets and forms a narrow cone angle, favoring the operation of 
                         the flameless combustor. Initially, were characterized blurry 
                         injectors with different nozzle geometries using distilled water, 
                         hydrous ethanol and soybean biodiesel B100. Were determined 
                         several parameters of the injectors, including discharge 
                         coefficients, representative droplet diameters, distributions of 
                         droplet diameters and spray cone angles. Also were obtained 
                         expressions for the prediction of the average droplet diameters 
                         with different injectors tested. Subsequently was projected, built 
                         and characterized a compact flameless combustion system for 
                         burning hydrous ethanol, 96\% by volume. The experimental 
                         characterization of the combustor was performed by determination 
                         of temperature profile in the combustion chamber, by thermocouples 
                         and thermographic camera, and analyzing flue-gas composition (UHC, 
                         \$CO_{2}\$, \$O_{2}\$, \$NO_{x}\$ and CO) for several air 
                         excess coefficients. It was verified that the combustion system 
                         was capable of operating in the flameless combustion regime for 
                         excess air coefficients between 1.65 and 2.45 at a thermal power 
                         of 2 kW, and for excess air coefficient of 1.21 to 1.80 at a 
                         thermal power of 4 kW. The inlet air combustion temperature was 
                         about \$412^{}\$C for the power of 2 kW and \$530^{}\$C for 
                         the power of 4 kW. The temperature profiles obtained were 
                         relatively homogeneous inside the chamber and the produced 
                         emissions were extremely low for all studied operational 
                         conditions. For the power of 2 kW, were obtained average 
                         temperatures of the order of \$830^{}\$C, with \$NO_{x}\$ 
                         emissions between 2.5 and 3 ppm and UHC emissions between 0.78 and 
                         0.91 ppm. For the power of 4 kW, were obtained average 
                         temperatures of the order of \$920^{}\$C, with \$NO_{x}\$ 
                         emissions between 1.98 and 2.16 ppm and UHC emissions between1.53 
                         and 2.25 ppm.",
            committee = "Costa, Fernando de Souza (presidente/orientador) and Dourado, 
                         Wladimyr Mattos da Costa and Mendon{\c{c}}a, Marcio Teixeira de 
                         and Rodrigues, Lucilene de Oliveira and Lacava, Pedro Teixeira",
         englishtitle = "Development of a compact flameless combustion system using a 
                         blurry injector for burning biofuels",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "215",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP7W/3F24DDL",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP7W/3F24DDL",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2020, Aug. 14"
}


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