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@Article{BravoSepulvedaMFUOVSCMTVMPRLS:2020:CoToEl,
               author = "Bravo Sepulveda, Manuel Alejandro and Mart{\'{\i}}nez Ledesma, 
                         Miguel and Foppiano, Alberto J. and Urra, Benjamin and Ovalle, 
                         Elias and Villalobos, C. and Souza, Jonas Rodrigues de and 
                         Carrasco, Enrique and Muoz, Pablo R. and Tamblay, Luis and Vega 
                         Jorquera, Pedro and Mar{\'{\i}}n, J. and Pacheco, R. and Rojo, 
                         E. and Leiva, R. and Stepanova, Marina",
          affiliation = "{Universidad de Concepci{\'o}n} and {Centro Interuniversitario de 
                         F{\'{\i}}sica de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} and {Universidad de 
                         Concepci{\'o}n} and {Universidad de Concepci{\'o}n} and 
                         {Universidad de Concepci{\'o}n} and {Centro Interuniversitario de 
                         F{\'{\i}}sica de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidad de 
                         Concepci{\'o}n} and {Centro Interuniversitario de F{\'{\i}}sica 
                         de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} and {Centro Interuniversitario de 
                         F{\'{\i}}sica de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} and {Centro 
                         Interuniversitario de F{\'{\i}}sica de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} 
                         and {Centro Interuniversitario de F{\'{\i}}sica de la Alta 
                         Atm{\'o}sfera} and {Centro Interuniversitario de F{\'{\i}}sica 
                         de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} and {Centro Interuniversitario de 
                         F{\'{\i}}sica de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} and {Centro 
                         Interuniversitario de F{\'{\i}}sica de la Alta Atm{\'o}sfera} 
                         and {Universidad de Santiago de Chile}",
                title = "First report of an eclipse from chilean ionosonde observations: 
                         comparison with total electron content estimations and the modeled 
                         maximum electron concentration and its height",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "125",
               number = "9",
                pages = "e2020JA027923",
                month = "Sept.",
             abstract = "The ionospheric responses to the total solar eclipse on 2 July 
                         2019 over low latitudes in southern South America are presented. 
                         Ionosonde observations were used within the totality path at La 
                         Serena (LS: 29.9S, 71.3W) and at Tucum{\'a}n (TU: 26.9S, 
                         65.4W) and Jicamarca (JI: 12.0S, 76.8W), with 85% and 52% 
                         obscuration, respectively. Total electron content (TEC) 
                         estimations over the South American continent were analyzed. The 
                         ionospheric impact of the eclipse was simulated using the 
                         Sheffield University Plasmasphere\‐Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) 
                         at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE). The 
                         significant variability of the diurnal variations of the various 
                         ionospheric characteristics over equatorial and low latitudes on 
                         geomagnetically quiet days makes it difficult to unambiguously 
                         determine the ionospheric responses to the eclipse. Nonetheless, 
                         some specific issues can be derived, mainly using simulation 
                         results. The E and F1 layer critical frequencies and densities 
                         below 200 km are found to consistently depend on decreasing solar 
                         radiation. However, the F1 layer stratification observed at both 
                         TU and LS cannot be related to the eclipse or other processes. The 
                         F2 layer does not follow the changes in direct solar radiation 
                         during the eclipse. The SUPIM\‐INPE\‐modeled F 
                         region critical frequency and TEC are overestimated before the 
                         eclipse at LS and particularly at TU. However, these 
                         overestimations are within the observed large 
                         day\‐to\‐day variability. When an artificial 
                         prereversal enhancement is added, the simulations during the 
                         eclipse better reproduce the observations at JI, are qualitatively 
                         better for LS, and are out of phase for TU. The simulations are 
                         consistent with conjugate location effects.",
                  doi = "10.1029/2020JA027923",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027923",
                 issn = "2169-9402",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "bravo-first.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2020, Nov. 26"
}


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