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@Article{CardosoSiFéCaCaViFr:2020:ChImSo,
               author = "Cardoso, Evelin Helena Silva and Silva, Marcelino Silva da and 
                         F{\'e}lix J{\'u}nior, Francisco Eguinaldo de Albuquerque and 
                         Carvalho, Solon Ven{\^a}ncio de and Carvalho, Andr{\'e} Carlos 
                         Ponce de Leon Ferreira de and VijayKumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli 
                         and Franc{\^e}s, Carlos Renato Lisboa",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Universidade Federal do 
                         Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         do Par{\'a} (UFPA)}",
                title = "Characterizing the impact of social inequality on COVID-19 
                         propagation in developing countries",
              journal = "IEEE Access",
                 year = "2020",
               volume = "8",
                pages = "172563--172580",
             keywords = "Sociology, Statistics, Indexes, Diseases, Faces, Pharmaceuticals, 
                         COVID-19~propagation, social inequality, non-pharmaceutical 
                         interventions, developing countries.",
             abstract = "The world faces a pandemic not previously experienced in modern 
                         times. The internal mechanism of SARS-Cov-2 is not well known and 
                         there are no Pharmaceutical Interventions available. To stem the 
                         spread of the virus, measures of respiratory etiquette, social 
                         distancing and hand hygiene have been recommended. Based on these 
                         measures, some countries have already managed to control the 
                         COVID-19 propagation, although in the absence of pharmaceutical 
                         interventions, this control is not definitive. However, we have 
                         seen that social heterogeneity across populations makes the 
                         effects of COVID-19 also different. Social inequality affects the 
                         population of developing countries not only from an economic point 
                         of view. The relationship between social inequality and the health 
                         condition is not new, but it becomes even more evident in times of 
                         crisis, such as the one the world has been facing with COVID-19. 
                         How does social inequality affect the COVID-19 propagation in 
                         developing countries is the object of this study. We propose a new 
                         epidemic SEIR model based on social indicators to predict outbreak 
                         and mortality of COVID-19. The estimated number of infected and 
                         fatalities are compared with different levels of 
                         Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions. We present a case study for the 
                         Deep Brazil. The results showed that social inequality has a 
                         strong effect on the propagation of COVID-19, increasing its 
                         damage and accelerating the collapse of health infrastructure.",
                  doi = "10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3024910",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3024910",
                 issn = "2169-3536",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "cardoso_characterizing.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2020, Nov. 26"
}


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