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@PhDThesis{Chaves:2003:CoATe,
               author = "Chaves, Rosane Rodrigues",
                title = "Conex{\~o}es entre a temperatura da superf{\'{\i}}cie do Oceano 
                         Atl{\^a}ntico e a convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o de ver{\~a}o sobre a 
                         Am{\'e}rica do Sul e {\'a}reas adjacentes",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2003",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2003-08-15",
             keywords = "Oceano Atl{\^a}ntico, Am{\'e}rica do Sul, zona de 
                         converg{\^e}ncia do Atl{\^a}ntico Sul (ZCAS), temperatura da 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie do mar (TSM), intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         oceano-atmosfera, Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Atlantic 
                         convergence zone, sea surface temperature (SST), air water 
                         interactions.",
             abstract = "A intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre a Temperatura da Superf{\'{\i}}cie 
                         do Mar (TSM) do Oceano Atl{\^a}ntico e a convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         ver{\~a}o sobre a Am{\'e}rica do Sul {\'e} estudada 
                         atrav{\'e}s de m{\'e}todos estat{\'{\i}}sticos de an{\'a}lise 
                         multivariada e de simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es num{\'e}ricas. A 
                         an{\'a}lise observacional {\'e} realizada atrav{\'e}s da 
                         An{\'a}lise de Componentes Principais, Decomposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         em Valores Singulares e de an{\'a}lise de compostos dos dados de 
                         TSM do COADS, ROL do CDC/NOAA e vento da rean{\'a}lise do 
                         NCEP/NCAR para o per{\'{\i}}odo de 1979 a 2001. Nesta 
                         an{\'a}lise os resultados mostram que a convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         sobre a por{\c{c}}{\~a}o oce{\^a}nica da Zona de 
                         Converg{\^e}ncia do Atl{\^a}ntico Sul (ZCAS) est{\'a} associada 
                         {\`a}s anomalias positivas de TSM sobre o Atl{\^a}ntico Sul 
                         (40šS-Equador). No entanto, na an{\'a}lise observacional, a 
                         associa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da por{\c{c}}{\~a}o continental da ZCAS 
                         {\`a} TSM n{\~a}o {\'e} evidente. Os mecanismos 
                         f{\'{\i}}sicos respons{\'a}veis pelo estabelecimento das 
                         conex{\~o}es entre a TSM do Atl{\^a}ntico Sul e a 
                         convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o sobre a Am{\'e}rica do Sul e {\'a}reas 
                         adjacentes s{\~a}o estudados atrav{\'e}s de 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es num{\'e}ricas com o Modelo de 
                         Circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o Geral da Atmosfera (MCGA) CPTEC/COLA e o 
                         Modelo de Circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o Geral do Oceano (MCGO) MOM. Os 
                         resultados das simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es mostram que a variabilidade 
                         da ZCAS est{\'a} associada {\`a}s anomalias de TSM do 
                         Atl{\^a}ntico Sul e que existe um forte acoplamento entre a 
                         atmosfera e o oceano adjacente a este sistema meteorol{\'o}gico. 
                         As anomalias positivas de TSM sobre o Atl{\^a}ntico Sul tendem a 
                         intensificar e posicionar a ZCAS em latitudes ao norte da sua 
                         posi{\c{c}}{\~a}o climatol{\'o}gica, enquanto que o 
                         resfriamento desta Bacia tende a desintensificar a ZCAS. A TSM do 
                         Oceano Atl{\^a}ntico Sul for{\c{c}}a a convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         sobre a costa do sul do NEB, norte do Sudeste e {\'a}reas 
                         oce{\^a}nicas adjacentes dinamicamente, atrav{\'e}s da 
                         altera{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos padr{\~o}es de fluxo de umidade entre o 
                         oceano e a atmosfera, e termodinamicamente, atrav{\'e}s da 
                         altera{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos mecanismos de instabiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         da atmosfera. Os experimentos num{\'e}ricos com o MCGO mostram 
                         que a ZCAS causa o aparecimento de anomalias negativas de TSM ou a 
                         desintensifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o das anomalias positivas de TSM no 
                         Atl{\^a}ntico Sul sob este sistema. Os resultados das 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es num{\'e}ricas com o MCGO indicam que as 
                         anomalias negativas de TSM sob a regi{\~a}o da ZCAS s{\~a}o 
                         resultados de processos radiativos. Nesta intera{\c{c}}{\~a}o, o 
                         {"}feedback{"} negativo (feedback nuvem/onda curta e a TSM) 
                         predomina com uma ordem de magnitude maior em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         ao {"}feedback{"} negativo din{\^a}mico (mecanismo de bombeamento 
                         de Ekman). Este {\'u}ltimo mecanismo se manifesta apenas quando 
                         ocorre forte evento de ZCAS. Aparentemente, o maior contraste 
                         entre a temperatura do Atl{\^a}ntico Sul e do continente, 
                         associado com a intensifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o de mon{\c{c}}{\~a}o, n{\~a}o contribui 
                         com a intensifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o da ZCAS. Os resultados da 
                         an{\'a}lise observacional e dos experimentos num{\'e}ricos 
                         mostram que as anomalias de TSM do Oceano Atl{\^a}ntico Norte 
                         (Equador-40šN) durante o per{\'{\i}}odo de ver{\~a}o austral 
                         est{\~a}o associadas apenas com a convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o no norte 
                         da Am{\'e}rica do Sul. ABSTRACT: The interaction between the sea 
                         surface temperature (SST) over the Atlantic Ocean and the summer 
                         convection over South America and adjacent areas is studied with 
                         the help of statistical analysis and numerical experiments. The 
                         observational analysis is done through Principal Components 
                         Analysis, Singular Values Decomposition and composites analysis 
                         with SST from COADS, Outgoing Longwave Radiation from CDC/NOAA 
                         (1979-2001) and wind field from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The results 
                         show that the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) convection 
                         over the ocean is associated with the warm waters in this Basin 
                         (40šS-Equador). The physical mechanisms responsible for the 
                         establishment of these connections between the SST in the South 
                         Atlantic Ocean and the summer convection over South America are 
                         studied through separate runs of the numerical experiments with 
                         the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) CPTEC/COLA and 
                         ocean general circulation model (OGCM) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 
                         Laboratory (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM). The results of the 
                         AGCM and OGCM experiments show that the SACZ is associated with 
                         SST anomalies in the South Atlantic and there is a strong coupling 
                         between the atmosphere and the ocean adjacent to this 
                         meteorological system. The warming of South Atlantic Ocean tends 
                         to intensify and move the SACZ northward of its climatological 
                         position; meanwhile the cooling of South Atlantic tends to weaken 
                         the SACZ. The SST on the South Atlantic Ocean force the SACZ 
                         convection dynamically, through change in the humidity flux 
                         patterns over South America and termodynamically, through change 
                         in the destabilization mechanisms of the atmosphere. The OGCM 
                         experiments show that the SACZ cause cold SST anomalies or the 
                         desintensification of the warm SST anomalies in the South Atlantic 
                         Ocean under this meteorological system, result of radiative 
                         processes. In this interaction, the negative feedback 
                         (Cloud/Short-Wave - SST feedback) predominates and it is one order 
                         of magnitude larger than the negative dynamic feedback (Ekman 
                         pumping). The latter is verified only during strong SACZ events. 
                         The results show that the contrast between the surface temperature 
                         over South Atlantic and South America, associated with 
                         intensification of monsson circulation, does not contribute to the 
                         intensification of the SACZ. The results from observational 
                         analysis and numerical experiments show that the positive SST 
                         anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean (Equador - 40šN) are 
                         associated only with the summer convecction over the northernmost 
                         region of South America.",
            committee = "Satyamurty, Prakki (presidente) and Nobre, Paulo (orientador) and 
                         Bonatti, Jos{\'e} Paulo and Campos, Edmo Jos{\'e} Dias and 
                         Ambrizzi, T{\'e}rcio",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Connections between the sea surface temperature over the Atlantic 
                         Ocean and the summer convection over South America and adjacent 
                         areas",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "204",
                  ibi = "6qtX3pFwXQZ3P8SECKy/zQ9g6",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/6qtX3pFwXQZ3P8SECKy/zQ9g6",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 dez. 2019"
}


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