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@Article{SahuACBUDCBBRBKFFYMKPPSSSUWBBBHSKKRRSSTVBMCFHDCDBBMAPGYAACDGGJLMMMNPSJABNBHHHKLMPRRSSSSTWWTSBHS:2022:IsStBl,
               number = "1",
                pages = "e83",
              journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
                 year = "2022",
                 issn = "0004-637X and 1538-4357",
             abstract = "We report the first unambiguous detection and mass measurement of 
                         an isolated stellar-mass black hole (BH). We used the Hubble Space 
                         Telescope (HST) to carry out precise astrometry of the source star 
                         of the long-duration (t (E) similar or equal to 270 days), 
                         high-magnification microlensing event 
                         MOA-2011-BLG-191/OGLE-2011-BLG-0462 (hereafter designated as 
                         MOA-11-191/OGLE-11-462), in the direction of the Galactic bulge. 
                         HST imaging, conducted at eight epochs over an interval of 6 yr, 
                         reveals a clear relativistic astrometric deflection of the 
                         background star's apparent position. Ground-based photometry of 
                         MOA-11-191/OGLE-11-462 shows a parallactic signature of the effect 
                         of Earth's motion on the microlensing light curve. Combining the 
                         HST astrometry with the ground-based light curve and the derived 
                         parallax, we obtain a lens mass of 7.1 +/- 1.3 M (circle dot) and 
                         a distance of 1.58 +/- 0.18 kpc. We show that the lens emits no 
                         detectable light, which, along with having a mass higher than is 
                         possible for a white dwarf or neutron star, confirms its BH 
                         nature. Our analysis also provides an absolute proper motion for 
                         the BH. The proper motion is offset from the mean motion of 
                         Galactic disk stars at similar distances by an amount 
                         corresponding to a transverse space velocity of similar to 45 km 
                         s(-1), suggesting that the BH received a ``natal kick'' from its 
                         supernova explosion. Previous mass determinations for stellar-mass 
                         BHs have come from radial velocity measurements of Galactic X-ray 
                         binaries and from gravitational radiation emitted by merging BHs 
                         in binary systems in external galaxies. Our mass measurement is 
                         the first for an isolated stellar-mass BH using any technique.",
                month = "July",
               volume = "933",
                  doi = "10.3847/1538-4357/ac739e",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac739e",
                label = "20220725",
          affiliation = "{Space Telescope Science Institute} and {} and {} and {} and {} 
                         and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and 
                         {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} 
                         and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and 
                         {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} 
                         and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and 
                         {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
             language = "en",
               author = "Sahu, Kailash C. and Anderson, Jay and Casertano, Stefano and 
                         Bond, Howard E. and Udalski, Andrzej and Dominik, Martin and 
                         Calamida, Annalisa and Bellini, Andrea and Brown, Thomas M. and 
                         Rejkuba, Marina and Bajaj, Varun and Kains, Noe and Ferguson, 
                         Henry C. and Fryer, Chris L. and Yock, Philip and Mroz, Przemek 
                         and Kozlowski, Szymon and Pietrukowicz, Pawel and Poleski, Radek 
                         and Skowron, Jan and Soszynski, Igor and Szymanski, Michal K. and 
                         Ulaczyk, Krzysztof and Wyrzykowski, Lukasz and Barry, Richard K. 
                         and Bennett, David P. and Bond, Ian A. and Hirao, Yuki and Silva, 
                         Stela Ishitani and Kondo, Iona and Koshimoto, Naoki and Ranc, 
                         Clement and Rattenbury, Nicholas J. and Sumi, Takahiro and Suzuki, 
                         Daisuke and Tristram, Paul J. and Vandorou, Aikaterini and 
                         Beaulieu, Philippe and Marquette, Jean-Baptiste and Cole, Andrew 
                         and Fouque, Pascal and Hill, Kym and Dieters, Stefan and Coutures, 
                         Christian and Dominis-Prester, Dijana and Bennett, Clara and 
                         Bachelet, Etienne and Menzies, John and Albrow, Michael and 
                         Pollard, Karen and Gould, Andrew and Yee, Jennifer C. and Allen, 
                         William and Almeida, Leonardo A. and Christie, Grant and Drummond, 
                         John and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Gorbikov, Evgeny and Jablonski, 
                         Francisco Jos{\'e} and Lee, Chung-Uk and Maoz, Dan and Manulis, 
                         Ilan and McCormick, Jennie and Natusch, Tim and Pogge, Richard W. 
                         and Shvartzvald, Yossi and Jorgensen, Uffe G. and Alsubai, Khalid 
                         A. and Andersen and I and Michael and Bozza, Valerio and Novati, 
                         Sebastiano Calchi and Burgdorf, Martin and Hinse, Tobias C. and 
                         Hundertmark, Markus and Husser, Tim-Oliver and Kerins, Eamonn and 
                         Longa-Pena, Penelope and Mancini, Luigi and Penny, Matthew and 
                         Rahvar, Sohrab and Ricci, Davide and Sajadian, Sedighe and 
                         Skottfelt, Jesper and Snodgrass, Colin and Southworth, John and 
                         Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy and Wambsganss, Joachim and Wertz, Olivier 
                         and Tsapras, Yiannis and Street, Rachel A. and Bramich, D. M. and 
                         Horne, Keith and Steele, Iain A.",
                title = "An Isolated Stellar-mass Black Hole Detected through Astrometric 
                         Microlensing*",
           targetfile = "Sahu_2022_ApJ_933_83.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 set. 2022"
}


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